fieldwork

New multi-lake experiment launched

It has been a busy summer for our NERC-funded project RELATED (that stands for Restoring Ecosystems by Linking Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecological Dynamics).  The project aims to test experimentally whether the productivity of aquatic food webs increases with the quantity and quality of terrestrial organic matter deposited in nearshore delta habitats.  It builds on our previous work that showed forests fuel the growth of juvenile fish by subsidizing the base of the aquatic food web.  RELATED will also feature much more work on unlocking the microbial ‘black box’ at the base of the food web as well as better understanding how greenhouse gas emissions might change with surrounding vegetation.  Inland waters are major sources of atmospheric carbon and predicting their responses to future change is of major interest (some great recent work here, here, and here).

Experiment behind the beautiful Living with Lakes Centre

New experiment behind the beautiful Living with Lakes Centre

We’ve now just finished launching the experimental platform behind RELATED.  Over the last 8 weeks, we’ve had a team of 8+ working tirelessly to submerge artificial lake sediments in 3 lakes.  This has involved collecting, mulching, and sifting organic and inorganic materials, mixing these at an industrial scale, and outfitting nearly 300 mesocosms with the appropriate sampling gear.  By replicating our experiment in 3 different lakes, we’ll be able to study terrestrial-aquatic linkages along gradients in eutrophication and climate change – the main drivers of change in the world’s inland waters.  We’ve also had excellent student help from Laurentian University’s School of Architecture work to design and build a network of sampling platforms that will allow us to work without disturbing our sediments.

Artificial sediments with increasing organics from left to right.

Artificial sediments with increasing organics from left to right.

Here’s the main team celebrating the deployment of the experiment in Ramsey Lake:

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What have we been learning about the Cerrado?

Cerrado landscape invaded by sugarcane fields.

Cerrado landscape invaded by sugarcane fields

In the beginning of 2014, my adventure in the Brazilian Cerrado had just started! It’s now been a year I took the airplane to Brasília, in the heart of Brazil. We decided to study the effects of agriculture, specifically of sugarcane crops, on the gases emissions from soils of this region. Nothing would have been possible without the collaboration with the EMBRAPA Cerrados. But why there??

Cerrado woodland vegetation

Cerrado woodland vegetation

Cerrado, the richest savannah in the world and the most extensive savannah complex in the Neotropics, has been historically affected by a number of human activities. By now, it has lost half of its 2 mi km2 of native vegetation. The expansion of the sugarcane fields, often used for bio-ethanol production, is one of the current threats to this biome.

We are currently measuring the emissions of greenhouse gases, specifically the nitrous oxide (N2O), in response to the management of fertilisers. Our preliminary results show a large increase in the emissions from the combined treatment using nitrogen and vinasse*, that is, 450 times more than the native areas on average! Our longer monitoring activities will be important to understand the variation on the emissions throughout the sugarcane cycle and to assess the sustainability of this crop in the region.

*Vinasse=a waste from the ethanol production that is re-used as fertiliser.  

Experimental sugarcane field in May/2014

Experimental sugarcane field in May/2014

Experimental sugarcane field in November/2014

Experimental sugarcane field in November/2014

Applying vinasse to the field

Applying vinasse to the field

                                              

Collecting gases in the Cerrado

Collecting gases in the Cerrado

Collecting gases from the sugarcane field

Collecting gases from the sugarcane field

Part of the staff in a rare relaxing time!!!

Part of the staff in a rare relaxing time!!!